Sinusitis symptoms and treatments

Sinusitis refers to the inflammation of sinus lining, sinus being the small air filled cavity located behind the cheek bones amd forehead. It is a common case afflicting any age.

Types of sinusitis by case history follow:

1. Acute sinusitis,
2. Sub-acute sinu sitis.
3. Chronic sinu sitis.
4. Repetitive sinu sitis,

The symptoms

Fever 38 degree Celcius and over.
Congested nose having yellowish green liquid.
Pain in the face and hurt when supressed.
Losing smelling
Bad smelling breath (halitosis).

Sinus location

Sinus forms interlinked small rooms through an air passage in the skull. The sinus cavity opens holes of the nose. There are four sets of sinus in the skull , i.e. behind the forehead, in both sides of the nose,  behind the eyes, and behind cheek bones.

The mucous produced by the sinus funtctions to help control the temperature and humidity of the air entering the lungs. The mucous flows into the nose by the small channels. The channels may be shut if the sinus gets infecttion or suffers inflammation.



Causes and triggers

The most common cause of sinusitis is happening swell on the lining of the nose, arising from flu virus spreading from upper respiratory tract. Beside flu virus, the triggers can be infection by fungus, tooth infection, and smoking habit. After flu affection there may happen secondary bacteria infection, to cause the sinus lining to suffer inflammation.

Children sinusitis may be caused by allergy, affected contagiously from near suffering children, wrong habit of baby drinking while lying from bottle or nipple, and smoky environment.

Diagnotic actions

Diagnosis may start with the symptoms, such as nose congested with snivel and pain about the face. There may be physical check by the doctor. If considered serious, a specialist doctor may be required and CT scan may be recommended.

Medical treatment

Most sinusitis sufferers need no medical help. Virus affection will stop naturally but it will need two or three weeks to recover. Light sinusitis may need some pain killing drug and decongestant.

If turning serious the doctor’s help may be needed. Antibiotic and steroid spray may be prescribed in this case.

Serious sinusitis may require some operation to improve sinus function and drainage. It is only recommended if usual medication did not work.


On failing medication an acute sinusitis may invite complications i.e. chronic sinusitis.

Further complication may happen if the chronic sinusitis also fails proper treatment, a.o.:

The infection spreading to brain lining may cause meningitis.

Smelling sense may be spoiled partially or totally.

Vision problem may appear, such as decreasing sight or even blindness.

To trigger skin or bone infection.

Nail Fungus (tinea unguium) nails skin problem

Nail Fungus (tinea unguium)
Nail fungus is a common condition indicated by appearing white or yellow spot under the tips of hand or foot nails.
The nail may change colour, thicken, and break in the tip as the fungus goes deeper in. This disease also called onychomycosis and tinea unguium may afflict more than one nail but rarely all the nails.

The factors causing nail fungus follow:
Small injury in skin or nail.
Diabetes, blood circulation disorder, immune system disorder, or down syndrome.
Barefooting in public places, such as swimming pools, fitness centers, and public bathrooms.
Ringworm (tinea pedis)
Socks and shoes with no air ventilation.
Wet and damp environment.
Much sweaty.
Old aged. The more aged the less blood circulation to cause slower nail growth, fungus longer staying.
The symptoms

Nail Fungus


Nail fungus have the following indications:
Losing normal colour, not bright.
Fragile and broken.
Detached from the base, bad smelling.

Fungus Causes
Fungus is a microscopic organism needing no sunlight to grow. Generally dermatophyte gives growth to nail fungus but yeast may also contribute.
Fungus may also penetrate through small sliced skin then affected with damp atmosphere.
Nail fungus mostly happens in foot rather than hand fingers because of the following:
Blood circulation in the feet is scarcer than in the hands, causing the immune system to be slower in detecting the infection.
Nails of the feet often get dark, warm, and damp environment because of wearing socks or shoes.

Nail Fungus Diagnosis and treatment
Physical examination for the affected nails. If not sufficient, sample of the skin under the nails may be taken for laboratory testing.
Medication prescribed for nail fungus is commonly as follows:
Nail polishing ciclopirox to be applied once a day for possible one year long.
Nail cream for application after drowning the infected nails in water.
Oral antifungus medication as terbinafine and itraconazole to grow new layer of nails.

Other than medication the following treatment may be taken:
Nail extraction if the infection is serious.
Laser theraphy, though still rare and expensive.
Generally fungous infection in feet has more difficult treatment than that in hand fingers because foot fingers are slower in growth.
Keep habit the following:
Do the fingers well cut and remain dry.
Use rubber gloves to keep from excessive use of water.
Avoid old shoes.
No harming of skin around the fingers.
Apply antifungous powder for feet and shoes.
Get shoes helping feet from dampness.
Avoid barefooting in public places.
Wear sweat absorbing socks.
Routine cleaning of hands and feet.

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder causing the sufferer to experience delusion, hallucination, disorientation, and changed behaviour. The condition lasts long and is referred to as a mental disorder for the difficulty of the sufferer to distinguish between the reality and imagination.
Schizophrenia may happen to anyone male or female, the ages around 15-35 being the most vulnerable to this affection.


Schizophrenia  Causes
No confirmation yet has been made about what leads to this case of schizophrenia. The condition may be attributed to combined factors of psychological, physical, genetical, and environmental.
Diagnosis and treatments
The specialists should soon be approached if anyone show the symptoms. The faster the better will be. Chance of recovery will be greater if handled the earliest possible.

Schizophrenia may be detected on following indications:
– Having hallucination, delution, disoriented talking, and lacking emotional expression.
– Losing performance in doing daily activities such as working productivity and school achievement.
– The symptoms above cannot be attributed to other conditions as bipolarity or side effects of drugs misuses.
– The treatment usually combines CBT behaviour therapy and antipsychotic medication. For better chance of recovery close relatives cooperation may help.
On having recovered monitoring will still be needed. The doctor may prescribe medicines to prevent recurring but it is important for the sufferer to recognize signs of recurrence and relate the condition to someone.