Stroke Diagnosis, Treatments, Recovery, Preventive, Complications

Stroke Diagnosis, Treatments, Recovery, Preventive, Complications

Stroke refers to a condition when blood supply to the brain is interfered or lacks due to congestion (ischemic stroke) or burst (haemorrhagic stroke) of the blood vessels. With no blood the brain gets no supply of oxygen and nutrition, this causing the cells in partial brain die. The condition will cause the part of the body controlled by the brain area to lose its normal function. Stroke is a medical emergency because brain cells can die in a matter of minutes. Quick handling may minimize possible brain damage and complications.

The symptoms  of Stroke

Partial body is controlled by different partial brain and therefore stroke symptoms depend on the brain area affected and its damage degree. The symptoms vary individually but happen mostly in a sudden. 3 indications are the most common:

Face. The face looks slanting side way, unable to smile of losing resilience.

Arms. Stroke may cause arms to weaken and lose power of pulling back. Not only the arms but also the legs of the same side weaken.

Speech. Unclear speech, babbling, or even totally losing speech ability.

Other indications of stroke:

Nusea and vomit.

Sudden grave headache, stiff neck, and vertigo.

Decreasing consciousness.

Hard of swallowing (dysphagia).

Losing balance and coordination.

Sudden losing sight or doubling sight.

stroke causes prevention

Stroke Causes

Two types of stroke by causes:

Ischemic stroke. This case happens when the arterial blood vessels fail to carry blood and oxygen to the brain due to congestion. It is called ischemia.

Haemorrhagic stroke.

This type happens when the blood vessels of the brain burst and bleed. The bleeding may be caused by some conditions affecting the blood vessels as follows:

Uncontrolled hypertension.

Weakening blood vessel walls (brain aneurism).

Anticoagulant medication

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA):

TIA has the same stroke symptoms but it lasts usually for five minutes. It is caused by clogging of blood clot, cutting blood supply to the brain.

Stroke risk factors as the following:

Health factors, including



High cholesterol


Heart failure.

Sleep apnea.

Having historical TIA case.

Life style factors, including

Smoking habit.

Lacking physical exercise.

Constricted drugs consumption.


Other factors, including

Genetic case.

Age factor.


Stroke Diagnosis

Evaluation on the types of stroke and brain area affected.

Firstly there will be inquiries about the following:

The first symptoms appearing and activities being done.

The medicines being consumed.

Historical injury on head area.

Inquiries about health and family history on heart failure, TIA, and stroke.

Physical check wholly, as blood pressure, heart beat, abnormal noise in the blood vessels.

Further examination including a.o.:

Blood test.


CT scan.



USG doppler carotis.


Stroke Treatments  

Stroke treatments usually require a neurologist, depending on the type of the case, ischemic or haemorrhagic.

Ischemic stroke treatment

Firstly the medical action will focus on ensuring stable breathing, controlling blood pressure, and recovering blood flow. The actions cover:

rtPA injection. By rtPA (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) infusing, recovery of blood flow will be acted upon but after due propriety of the patient.

Antiplatelet drugs. To prevent blood coagulating, this medicine will be prescribed, such as aspirin.

Anticoagulant. To prevent blood clotting, anticoagulant as heparin, will be dispensed, working by manipulating composing factors of blood coagulation.

Antihypertension. On early stroke, the blood pressure may be kept above low level to maintain blood supply to the brain, but on gaining stable pressure the pressure will be kept on optimal level.

Statin. Statin group cholesterol medication as atorvastatin may be given to control high cholesterol, by inhibiting the enzyme producing cholesterol of the liver.

Endarterectomy carotis.

To prevent recurring ischemic stroke an operation may be needed, one being called endarterectomy carotis, by removing the fat, which clogs flow of carotis arterial blood to the brain.


It is operated using catheter inserted into blood vessel of upper thigh directed to the artery carotis, aimed at enlarging the blood vessel.

Haemorrhagic stroke treatment.

The treatment aims at lowering pressure on the brain and controlling the bleeding. Some treatment actions on haemorrhagic stroke:

Medicines. The medication aims at lowering pressure on the brain, blood pressure, and preventing spasm. On consuming anticoagulant or antiplatelet, coagulating factor transfusion may be given to counter effect the anticoagulant.

Stroke Operation.

Operation is done to reduce pressure on the brain and possibly restore broken blood vessel.

TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack).

TIA treatment aims at controlling the risk factor likely to trigger stroke and thus prevent it. Antiplatelet or anticoagulant, cholesterol and antihypertension medicines may be given depending on the risk factor. Endarterectomy carotis operation may be required in case of existing accumulated fat.

Stroke recovery

Rehabilitation depends on the symptoms and graveness of the case. The sufferers may get the help of specialists as doctors, psychologist, speech therapist, physio therapist, and nurses.

Full recovery will take time but mostly total recovery is hardly rare.

Some effects result from stroke include:

Paralysis of partial body.

Losing body coordination and balance.

Cognitive effects; stroke may also affect cognitive function. It covers:

Memory power


Verbal as well as non verbal communications.

Physical activities.

Decision making.

Demensia vascular. This effect may happen instantly or some time later after the stroke attack.

Psychological effects as depression and anxiety.

Communication abilities as speaking, understanding, reading, writing, all these being called aphasia or disphasia.

Vision ability as losing sight.

Urination problem.

Family support is essential in helping the patients get sooner recovery such as:

To motivate for long time improvement.

To adapt to the patient’s condition such as being slow in communication.

Getting involved in physiotherapeutic treatment.

Moral support to ensure the patient of eventual recovery.

Frustation and loneliness may happen with the patients. The following are some suggestions worth attending:

Be prepared for having to face changed behaviour such as being sensitive of feeling.

Try always to give encouragement and applause on any even small improvement.

Do not miss to care for your own health physical as well as psychological.


Stroke Prevention

The primary action as preventive against stroke is healthy life style and recognize the risk factors close around.

Some ways against attack of stroke:

Eating habit. Too much salty and fatty foods may increase blood cholesterol later to trigger hypertension and lead to stroke.

Low fat and fibrous foods are highly recommended.

Regular physical exercises.

Stop smoking.

Avoid alcoholic drinks.

Keep away from NAPZA.

Stroke complications

Some of the complications follow:

Deep vein thrombosis, blood coagulation around the legs to result in paralysis.

Hydrocephalus (accumulated liquid in the brain), suffered by patients of haemorrhagic stroke.

Dysphagia, disorder in swallowing reflex causing foods to enter respiratory tract.

Tetanus – Risk of Tetanus Complication

Tetanus – Risk of Tetanus Complication

Tetanus is muscular stiffness of so called spasm rising from jaw and neck area. It is caused by toxic clostridium tetani bacteria, infiltrating the nerve system through uncared wound.

Clostridium tetani may survive out of body in spora form and last long, such as in dust, soil, animal dungs or human faeces.

The clostridium spora commonly penetrate the body through wounds caused by injuries, animal bites, rusty nails, or burns.

Tetanus Symptoms

On entering the body the spora turns into active tetanus bacteria. Then it will grow and release neurotoxin. The neurotoxin disrupts the nerve system and causes the sufferer to experience muscular stiffness. This is the main symptom of tetanus and causes the jaw to lock (lockjaw). Hard of swallowing is also one of the symptoms.

Types of tetanus

Tetanus has the following types: general tetanus, located tetanus, cephalic, and neonatorum. The located and cephalic types are of rare case.

Located tetanus happens when the affected area is limited to certain part of the body. It is caused by partial immune body system against tetanus bacteria and may turn into general type one.

Cephalic tetanus is caused by middle ear infection. It may also change to the general type tetanus.

Neonatorum tetanus is the tetanus suffered by newly born baby because of defiled birth handling then affected with tetanus bacteria spora.

Diagnosis and treatments Tetanus

Physical examination will usually be done by the doctor while also enquiring the patient’s case history on getting affected.

The treatment is given for supportive therapy, destroying the spora and stopping the bacteria growth.

Vaccination is recommended in case of the following:

Having no vaccination yet.

Having no full vaccination.

No assurance about ever having vaccination.

Tetanus is not a contagious disease but potentially fatal, especially when affecting face or head, suffered by babies, and poor handled patient.

Preventive and complications Tetanus

The main action to prevent tetanus is the vaccination.

The immunization is partial vaccination of DTP (diftery, tetanus, pertusis) and dispensed in 5 phases for the ages under 5 years and when reaching 12 years old.

For women the immunization is recommended to be given once before marriage and once after giving birth.

Caring for hygiene is also among the preventive actions, especially when nursing the wound.

Late handling of tetanus may lead to complications, such as sudden stop of heartbeat, lung emboli, and pneumonia.

Causes  of Tetanus

Tetanus bacteria spora living in defiled anaerobe wound will turn to active bacteria, then growing and releasing neurotoxin called tetanospasmin.

Risk factors

The factors and conditions susceptible to having tetanus infection are as follows:

Having no or incomplete vaccination.

Foreign matters existing in wound as wood piece, rust, or finger nail.

Wound affected with dust, animal dungs  or soil.

Deep wound such as one pierced by rusty or dirty nails.

Tatoo and piercing  made with poor hygienic tools.

Unsterile injection syringe.

Infected umbilical cord of newly born baby because of  incomplete vaccination of its mother.

Symptoms Tetanus

It requires 4 to 14 days incubation for tetanus bacteria spora before appearing in someone as tetanus symptoms. The symptoms include:

Spasm as indicated in muscular stiffness mainly jaw and neck causing the sufferer to be hard of opening mouth. The face looks awry, which is called risus sardonicus.

Difficulty to swallow may spread to the neck.

Muscles around stomach turn rigid.

Painful muscular contraction body whole takes some minutes. The symptoms are usually triggered by small matters as noise, touches, and light.

Grave spasm all over the body which causes lower back to curve upward.

Fever and sweaty.

Rising blood pressure.

Rapid heartbeat.

Treatment of Tetanus

Tetanus diagnosis is not determined by laboratory tests but by clinical manifestation.

Intensive treatments of tetanus include the following:

To relieve stiffness and relax the patient, anti stiff and sedative medicines may be given.

Sanitary actions on wound such as removing filth or dead tissue and disturbing materials still remaining.

To neutralize neurotoxin still prevailing, tetanus immunoglobulin may be dispensed.

To stop neurotoxin production, antimicrobic and antibiotic medications may be prescribed to kill clostridium tetani bacteria.

To operate a respirator or ventilator in case of affecting breathing organs.

To supply nutritional through flexible tube or infuser to prevent dehydration and malnutrition.

To recommend bedrest in a dark and tranquil room for preventing spasm recurring.

To provide tetanus vaccine for long term preventive action.

risk of tetanus


How to Prevent Tetanus

Vaccination, the principal preventive action.

Tetanus immunization as partial DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) vaccination, to be given in 5 phases, ranging from 2, 4, 6, 18 months to 4-6 years of the age.

Td vaccine for tetanus and diphtheria, to be given for over 7 years of age and repeated each 10 years.

To keep sanitary of the wound against infection and for quick healing. Toxoid may also be given to prevent infection of the wound.

Risk of Tetanus complication

Serious compications follow:

Pneumonia, caused by inhaling foreign matters into the lungs, such as saliva, vomit, food, or drink.

Lung emboli, especially with the old aged and drug abusers. The complication happens when lung blood vessel clogs.

Sudden stop of breathing, caused by muscular stiffness about the vocal membrane capable of fatal heart affliction.

Broken bone after prolonged spasm and contraction.

Typhus Treatments and Preventive Tips


Typhus (typhoid fever) is a disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria, usually spread through contaminated foods or drinks. It is mostly found in developing countries and afflicting children and hazardous if not properly handled.

Main symptoms: High fever

In some weeks ahead the condition aggravates and failing proper handling may cause complications such as internal bleeding or broken digestic system (intestines), later developing into fatality.

Typhoid bacteria usually take 7-14 days incubation period but it can be shorter 3 days or longer 30 days.

It may take months before full recovery and complication risk may still haunt but under proper treatment the case may improve within 3-5 days.

Common symptoms follow:

  1. Ascending gradual fever in the first week usually during the night.
  2. Musccular pain.
  3. Headache
  4. Physical discomfort.
  5. Kidney and liver swelling.
  6. Weak and fatigue.
  7. Much sweaty.
  8. Dry coughing.
  9. Losing weight.
  10. Stomach ache.
  11. Losing appetite.
  12. Dyarrhea or constipation.
  13. Skin rashes, tiny red spots.
  14. Losing orientation.

Causes  of Typhus

Salmonella typhi bacteria enter the intestines with contaminated foods or drinks and then develop in the digestic tract. On developing, the bacteria cause high fever, stomach ache, constipation or dyarrhea. Salmonella typhi bacteria differ from Salmonella bacteria which causes food poisoning.

Bad sanitation is the main cause of contagion such as by infected faeces or taking food contaminated by infected hands.

Seafood, vegetables, dairies contaminated with bacteria infection.

Bacteria contaminated toiletry on failing care of washing hands.

Typhus Diagnosis

Serology test to detect salmonella bacteria.

Tubex test, immunology test to detect typhus condition.

Laboratory test of blood, faeces, and urine.

Spinal liquid test for more accuracy.

Typhus Treatments

Antibiotic therapy is the most effective one for typhus treatment and it should be immediate action. Blood, faeces and urine will be focused on in laboratory test to specify the right antibiotic.

On fever, antipyretic medicine may be given to normalize body temperature.

In hospital, the antibiotic may be given by injection. The infusion into artery may be necessary to supply nutrition and liquid.

Operation may also be urgent when complications happen such as on internal bleeding or damaged digestic system.

At home, typhus sufferer of initial stadium usually takes 1-2 weeks of treatment with antibiotic tablet. The antibiotic should be taken wholly as prescribed to ensure total cure from bacteria infection.

Typhus Treatments for total recovery and preventing recurrence, the following steps need be attended:

To take enough rest.

Orderly meal taking. Small but frequent portions are better than big three times a day.

Plain water consumption a lot.

Regular hand washing with soap and warm water to prevent spread of infection

Complications of Typhus

Complications happen on late handling of the case or failing treatment with right antibiotic prescription. The common complication to happen is internal bleeding of the digestic system and spread of infection to its surrounding which causes broken intestines.

How to Preventive Typhus – Typhus Treatments


The vaccine is given to children of above two years old, to be repeated each three years. Thypoid vaccination gives no total protection. The infection may still happen but on vaccinated children the affliction becomes lighter. Vaccination is also recommended to people travelling to inflicted areas. Foods and drinks need controlling as preventive action.

More attention to sanitation and clean water supply as well as hygienic life style.

Hand washing before and after preparing foods and drinks, and after doing the nature or on cleaning items marred with faeces.

Use of hand sanitizer.

Taking only well cooked drinking water.

Beware of raw fruits and vegetables, and seafood

Keep toilet sanitation and avoid use of other’s bathing articles.

Avoid taking unpasteurised milk.