Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder causing the sufferer to experience delusion, hallucination, disorientation, and changed behaviour. The condition lasts long and is referred to as a mental disorder for the difficulty of the sufferer to distinguish between the reality and imagination.
Schizophrenia may happen to anyone male or female, the ages around 15-35 being the most vulnerable to this affection.


Schizophrenia  Causes
No confirmation yet has been made about what leads to this case of schizophrenia. The condition may be attributed to combined factors of psychological, physical, genetical, and environmental.
Diagnosis and treatments
The specialists should soon be approached if anyone show the symptoms. The faster the better will be. Chance of recovery will be greater if handled the earliest possible.

Schizophrenia may be detected on following indications:
– Having hallucination, delution, disoriented talking, and lacking emotional expression.
– Losing performance in doing daily activities such as working productivity and school achievement.
– The symptoms above cannot be attributed to other conditions as bipolarity or side effects of drugs misuses.
– The treatment usually combines CBT behaviour therapy and antipsychotic medication. For better chance of recovery close relatives cooperation may help.
On having recovered monitoring will still be needed. The doctor may prescribe medicines to prevent recurring but it is important for the sufferer to recognize signs of recurrence and relate the condition to someone.

Stroke Diagnosis, Treatments, Recovery, Preventive, Complications

Stroke Diagnosis, Treatments, Recovery, Preventive, Complications

Stroke refers to a condition when blood supply to the brain is interfered or lacks due to congestion (ischemic stroke) or burst (haemorrhagic stroke) of the blood vessels. With no blood the brain gets no supply of oxygen and nutrition, this causing the cells in partial brain die. The condition will cause the part of the body controlled by the brain area to lose its normal function. Stroke is a medical emergency because brain cells can die in a matter of minutes. Quick handling may minimize possible brain damage and complications.

The symptoms  of Stroke

Partial body is controlled by different partial brain and therefore stroke symptoms depend on the brain area affected and its damage degree. The symptoms vary individually but happen mostly in a sudden. 3 indications are the most common:

Face. The face looks slanting side way, unable to smile of losing resilience.

Arms. Stroke may cause arms to weaken and lose power of pulling back. Not only the arms but also the legs of the same side weaken.

Speech. Unclear speech, babbling, or even totally losing speech ability.

Other indications of stroke:

Nusea and vomit.

Sudden grave headache, stiff neck, and vertigo.

Decreasing consciousness.

Hard of swallowing (dysphagia).

Losing balance and coordination.

Sudden losing sight or doubling sight.

stroke causes prevention

Stroke Causes

Two types of stroke by causes:

Ischemic stroke. This case happens when the arterial blood vessels fail to carry blood and oxygen to the brain due to congestion. It is called ischemia.

Haemorrhagic stroke.

This type happens when the blood vessels of the brain burst and bleed. The bleeding may be caused by some conditions affecting the blood vessels as follows:

Uncontrolled hypertension.

Weakening blood vessel walls (brain aneurism).

Anticoagulant medication

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA):

TIA has the same stroke symptoms but it lasts usually for five minutes. It is caused by clogging of blood clot, cutting blood supply to the brain.

Stroke risk factors as the following:

Health factors, including



High cholesterol


Heart failure.

Sleep apnea.

Having historical TIA case.

Life style factors, including

Smoking habit.

Lacking physical exercise.

Constricted drugs consumption.


Other factors, including

Genetic case.

Age factor.


Stroke Diagnosis

Evaluation on the types of stroke and brain area affected.

Firstly there will be inquiries about the following:

The first symptoms appearing and activities being done.

The medicines being consumed.

Historical injury on head area.

Inquiries about health and family history on heart failure, TIA, and stroke.

Physical check wholly, as blood pressure, heart beat, abnormal noise in the blood vessels.

Further examination including a.o.:

Blood test.


CT scan.



USG doppler carotis.


Stroke Treatments  

Stroke treatments usually require a neurologist, depending on the type of the case, ischemic or haemorrhagic.

Ischemic stroke treatment

Firstly the medical action will focus on ensuring stable breathing, controlling blood pressure, and recovering blood flow. The actions cover:

rtPA injection. By rtPA (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) infusing, recovery of blood flow will be acted upon but after due propriety of the patient.

Antiplatelet drugs. To prevent blood coagulating, this medicine will be prescribed, such as aspirin.

Anticoagulant. To prevent blood clotting, anticoagulant as heparin, will be dispensed, working by manipulating composing factors of blood coagulation.

Antihypertension. On early stroke, the blood pressure may be kept above low level to maintain blood supply to the brain, but on gaining stable pressure the pressure will be kept on optimal level.

Statin. Statin group cholesterol medication as atorvastatin may be given to control high cholesterol, by inhibiting the enzyme producing cholesterol of the liver.

Endarterectomy carotis.

To prevent recurring ischemic stroke an operation may be needed, one being called endarterectomy carotis, by removing the fat, which clogs flow of carotis arterial blood to the brain.


It is operated using catheter inserted into blood vessel of upper thigh directed to the artery carotis, aimed at enlarging the blood vessel.

Haemorrhagic stroke treatment.

The treatment aims at lowering pressure on the brain and controlling the bleeding. Some treatment actions on haemorrhagic stroke:

Medicines. The medication aims at lowering pressure on the brain, blood pressure, and preventing spasm. On consuming anticoagulant or antiplatelet, coagulating factor transfusion may be given to counter effect the anticoagulant.

Stroke Operation.

Operation is done to reduce pressure on the brain and possibly restore broken blood vessel.

TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack).

TIA treatment aims at controlling the risk factor likely to trigger stroke and thus prevent it. Antiplatelet or anticoagulant, cholesterol and antihypertension medicines may be given depending on the risk factor. Endarterectomy carotis operation may be required in case of existing accumulated fat.

Stroke recovery

Rehabilitation depends on the symptoms and graveness of the case. The sufferers may get the help of specialists as doctors, psychologist, speech therapist, physio therapist, and nurses.

Full recovery will take time but mostly total recovery is hardly rare.

Some effects result from stroke include:

Paralysis of partial body.

Losing body coordination and balance.

Cognitive effects; stroke may also affect cognitive function. It covers:

Memory power


Verbal as well as non verbal communications.

Physical activities.

Decision making.

Demensia vascular. This effect may happen instantly or some time later after the stroke attack.

Psychological effects as depression and anxiety.

Communication abilities as speaking, understanding, reading, writing, all these being called aphasia or disphasia.

Vision ability as losing sight.

Urination problem.

Family support is essential in helping the patients get sooner recovery such as:

To motivate for long time improvement.

To adapt to the patient’s condition such as being slow in communication.

Getting involved in physiotherapeutic treatment.

Moral support to ensure the patient of eventual recovery.

Frustation and loneliness may happen with the patients. The following are some suggestions worth attending:

Be prepared for having to face changed behaviour such as being sensitive of feeling.

Try always to give encouragement and applause on any even small improvement.

Do not miss to care for your own health physical as well as psychological.


Stroke Prevention

The primary action as preventive against stroke is healthy life style and recognize the risk factors close around.

Some ways against attack of stroke:

Eating habit. Too much salty and fatty foods may increase blood cholesterol later to trigger hypertension and lead to stroke.

Low fat and fibrous foods are highly recommended.

Regular physical exercises.

Stop smoking.

Avoid alcoholic drinks.

Keep away from NAPZA.

Stroke complications

Some of the complications follow:

Deep vein thrombosis, blood coagulation around the legs to result in paralysis.

Hydrocephalus (accumulated liquid in the brain), suffered by patients of haemorrhagic stroke.

Dysphagia, disorder in swallowing reflex causing foods to enter respiratory tract.

Autism Spectrum Disorder causes and myth

Autism Spectrum Disorder spells disorder in nervous development, affecting child’s ability to communicate, in social interaction and behaviour, but include Asperger syndrome, Heller syndrome, and pervasive development disorder.

It is most important to have precaution over its symptoms much earlier, because ASD is an incurable condition.

However, there are types of intensive treatment likely to help the autist adapt to daily life and maximize his potential.

autism spectrum disorder

Symptoms and Diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorder

Generally autism can be detected early life of a child, below the age of three. Autism has different degree of acute development with each sufferer. However, the symptoms can be grouped into two caregories.

The first category shows social interaction and communication disorder.

This include susceptibility in social environment and inability in the application of verbal and non verbal languages.

The second category cover mentality, interest, and limited repetitive behaviour.

Repetitive behaviour are those like  knocking over and over, hand squeezing, showing grudge on being warned.

The autist tends to have problem in learning and other psychological behaviour, such as hyperactive (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/ADHD), depression. Get doctor’s contact in case you feel the presence of autist symptoms or disorder in you or your children’s growing condition. Early handling will be urgent and immediate for effective treatment of the condition.

Causes and myth Autism Spectrum Disorder
Some factors giving rise to autism include genetic prompts and environment, likely to cause this disorder. Nonetheless, no clear cause could yet be confirmed. In some cases, autism may also appear out of certain diseases. Other matters may also arouse autist triggers. Yet all those theories lend no support to autism cases as shown in medical tests conducted.

The underlying myth cover:

Compound of thiomersal having mercury (used for preservation of some vaccine).

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccine. This vaccine was once suspected to cause autism. Some parents refused its dispensation for their children.

Food taking style as gluten consumption or dairy product.

Children nurturing pattern.

autism awareness

Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism may get contracted and detected after adulthood. Diagnose process on adults may help the autist and his family to comprehend autism and take proper treatment. Some adult autists may find difficulty in getting employment because of the work demands and social changes. The autism service centres may give solution in finding the right jobs for the affected.