Stroke Diagnosis, Treatments, Recovery, Preventive, Complications
Stroke refers to a condition when blood supply to the brain is interfered or lacks due to congestion (ischemic stroke) or burst (haemorrhagic stroke) of the blood vessels. With no blood the brain gets no supply of oxygen and nutrition, this causing the cells in partial brain die. The condition will cause the part of the body controlled by the brain area to lose its normal function. Stroke is a medical emergency because brain cells can die in a matter of minutes. Quick handling may minimize possible brain damage and complications.
The symptoms of Stroke
Partial body is controlled by different partial brain and therefore stroke symptoms depend on the brain area affected and its damage degree. The symptoms vary individually but happen mostly in a sudden. 3 indications are the most common:
Face. The face looks slanting side way, unable to smile of losing resilience.
Arms. Stroke may cause arms to weaken and lose power of pulling back. Not only the arms but also the legs of the same side weaken.
Speech. Unclear speech, babbling, or even totally losing speech ability.
Other indications of stroke:
Nusea and vomit.
Sudden grave headache, stiff neck, and vertigo.
Hard of swallowing (dysphagia).
Losing balance and coordination.
Sudden losing sight or doubling sight.
Two types of stroke by causes:
Ischemic stroke. This case happens when the arterial blood vessels fail to carry blood and oxygen to the brain due to congestion. It is called ischemia.
This type happens when the blood vessels of the brain burst and bleed. The bleeding may be caused by some conditions affecting the blood vessels as follows:
Weakening blood vessel walls (brain aneurism).
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA):
TIA has the same stroke symptoms but it lasts usually for five minutes. It is caused by clogging of blood clot, cutting blood supply to the brain.
Stroke risk factors as the following:
Health factors, including
Having historical TIA case.
Life style factors, including
Lacking physical exercise.
Constricted drugs consumption.
Other factors, including
Evaluation on the types of stroke and brain area affected.
Firstly there will be inquiries about the following:
The first symptoms appearing and activities being done.
The medicines being consumed.
Historical injury on head area.
Inquiries about health and family history on heart failure, TIA, and stroke.
Physical check wholly, as blood pressure, heart beat, abnormal noise in the blood vessels.
Further examination including a.o.:
USG doppler carotis.
Stroke treatments usually require a neurologist, depending on the type of the case, ischemic or haemorrhagic.
Ischemic stroke treatment
Firstly the medical action will focus on ensuring stable breathing, controlling blood pressure, and recovering blood flow. The actions cover:
rtPA injection. By rtPA (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) infusing, recovery of blood flow will be acted upon but after due propriety of the patient.
Antiplatelet drugs. To prevent blood coagulating, this medicine will be prescribed, such as aspirin.
Anticoagulant. To prevent blood clotting, anticoagulant as heparin, will be dispensed, working by manipulating composing factors of blood coagulation.
Antihypertension. On early stroke, the blood pressure may be kept above low level to maintain blood supply to the brain, but on gaining stable pressure the pressure will be kept on optimal level.
Statin. Statin group cholesterol medication as atorvastatin may be given to control high cholesterol, by inhibiting the enzyme producing cholesterol of the liver.
To prevent recurring ischemic stroke an operation may be needed, one being called endarterectomy carotis, by removing the fat, which clogs flow of carotis arterial blood to the brain.
It is operated using catheter inserted into blood vessel of upper thigh directed to the artery carotis, aimed at enlarging the blood vessel.
Haemorrhagic stroke treatment.
The treatment aims at lowering pressure on the brain and controlling the bleeding. Some treatment actions on haemorrhagic stroke:
Medicines. The medication aims at lowering pressure on the brain, blood pressure, and preventing spasm. On consuming anticoagulant or antiplatelet, coagulating factor transfusion may be given to counter effect the anticoagulant.
Operation is done to reduce pressure on the brain and possibly restore broken blood vessel.
TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack).
TIA treatment aims at controlling the risk factor likely to trigger stroke and thus prevent it. Antiplatelet or anticoagulant, cholesterol and antihypertension medicines may be given depending on the risk factor. Endarterectomy carotis operation may be required in case of existing accumulated fat.
Rehabilitation depends on the symptoms and graveness of the case. The sufferers may get the help of specialists as doctors, psychologist, speech therapist, physio therapist, and nurses.
Full recovery will take time but mostly total recovery is hardly rare.
Some effects result from stroke include:
Paralysis of partial body.
Losing body coordination and balance.
Cognitive effects; stroke may also affect cognitive function. It covers:
Verbal as well as non verbal communications.
Demensia vascular. This effect may happen instantly or some time later after the stroke attack.
Psychological effects as depression and anxiety.
Communication abilities as speaking, understanding, reading, writing, all these being called aphasia or disphasia.
Vision ability as losing sight.
Family support is essential in helping the patients get sooner recovery such as:
To motivate for long time improvement.
To adapt to the patient’s condition such as being slow in communication.
Getting involved in physiotherapeutic treatment.
Moral support to ensure the patient of eventual recovery.
Frustation and loneliness may happen with the patients. The following are some suggestions worth attending:
Be prepared for having to face changed behaviour such as being sensitive of feeling.
Try always to give encouragement and applause on any even small improvement.
Do not miss to care for your own health physical as well as psychological.
The primary action as preventive against stroke is healthy life style and recognize the risk factors close around.
Some ways against attack of stroke:
Eating habit. Too much salty and fatty foods may increase blood cholesterol later to trigger hypertension and lead to stroke.
Low fat and fibrous foods are highly recommended.
Regular physical exercises.
Avoid alcoholic drinks.
Keep away from NAPZA.
Some of the complications follow:
Deep vein thrombosis, blood coagulation around the legs to result in paralysis.
Hydrocephalus (accumulated liquid in the brain), suffered by patients of haemorrhagic stroke.
Dysphagia, disorder in swallowing reflex causing foods to enter respiratory tract.